Anthropology is the science of man as human beings in the full extent of their diversity. Anthropology aims at understanding the meaning of social action and its explanation within its natural, social and cultural contexts and conditions. In particular, anthropology compares social action of members of different societies or social milieus.

All current methods used in social and cultural sciences are also applied in Anthropology. Of particular importance is the long-term participant observation. Fieldwork usually lasts one year or more and is a cornerstone for Anthropology as a scientific discipline.